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I created this blog as an instrument of what I have encountered in the world of veterinary medicine as a proud vet student. Comments and suggestions are welcome here at;

sweet_daffodil90@yahoo.co.uk

Regards,
Aina Meducci 2012

Disclaimer

The following blog posts is not genuinely from my research but through readings and citation from trusted website. I do not own any of the copyright and therefore you may use it at your own risk

SINCE I AM NOT A VETERINARIAN YET, THEREFORE I CAN'T CONSULT ANY MEDICAL ADVICE TO YOU AND YOUR PETS! EXTREMELY IMPORTANT!.

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Cat's Mange (scabies)

I was appointed as a leader in small animal clinic section during our Faculty Open day in conjunction with World Veterinary Day this 24-25th June. We were decided to do "Cat Adoption" program to the visitors whom are interested in cats as well as to teach them to handle the cats and also encouraging them to send their cats to vet whenever their cat has medical problems. I managed to find 4 cats (2 of them kitten) for adoption. However, there is one cat which are positive to mange and need to give treatment before it affects other cats!

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Cat's mange

Cat Mange is a skin disorder caused by mites skin. It is uncommon in cats but can occur. Mites can cause a localize from of the condition that starts on the ear, face and neck. Left untreated it can spread throughout the body and become what is known as a generalized form of the condition. Common symptoms include itch, dandruff, hair loss and sores. Treatment is with a lime-sulfur dip and prescription medications.

Cat mange is caused by two types of mites, burrowing mites and non-burrowing mites. Burrowing mites burrow in your cat's skin forming tunnels in which they lay their eggs. Larvae emerge, develop to nymphs then adults. The non-burrowing mites feed on skin scales; some suck tissue fluid and several suck blood.



A cat scratching due to mange


Types of Cat Mange

1. Ear mites (Otodectes Cynotis)

Ear mites are the most common form of mange in cats. The mites feed on scaling skin. This is a different condition from head manage and is caused by a different type of mite that does not burrow into the skin. Common symptoms include irritation and inflammation of the ear canal. In severe a substance oozing from the ear and red, scaly skin from secondary infections caused by bacterial or fungal infections.



Otodectes Cynotis mite



A cat having a ear mite

Cats that are afflicted with ear mites will typically scratch at the ears excessively and shake their heads, even pulling out their own hair and drawing blood as they scratch. Some cats will shake their heads so much that an hematoma of the ear will form (with blood pooling in the ear due to breakage of a blood vessel). Also of concern is when cats scratch at their ears to the point that injury is done to the ear canals or ear drums.

Symptoms

  • Itching of the ears, head and neck
  • Sometimes generalized itching
  • Excessive scratching at ears and around head
  • Frequently shaking the head
  • Thick red-brown or black crusts in the outer ear
  • Coffee ground like bumps in the ear canal
  • Abrasions and scratches on the back side of the ears
  • Crusting and scale on the neck, rump and tail


2. Notoedric Mange (head mange/ cat scabies)

This type of mange causes hair loss and crusty skin from mites burrowing under the skin. It is very itchy and causes cats to scratch excessively. The scratching can cause sores and bleeding of the skin. This form of mange is very contagious and can spread to humans or other animals.


Notoedres cati mite


A cat with notoedric mange


Notoedres can infect cats of all ages, breeds, and colors. It infects both males and females and often will infect an entire litter of kittens. Because this mite is transmitted directly from cat to cat, it is more common in outdoor cats that come in contact with strays. The mite only lives a few days off of the cat, but transmission through grooming, boarding, and sharing bedding is possible. N. cati can also infest foxes, dogs and rabbits.


Symptoms

The symptoms usually start with hair loss and itching on the ears and then spreads rapidly to the face, eyelids, and neck. The mites can also spread to the feet and lower abdomen. This characteristic spread probably occurs from the cat's habit of grooming, and sleeping curled up in a ball.

As the disease progresses, the skin will become thickened, wrinkled, and covered with grayish/yellowcrusts. Because of the intense itching, the infected cat will often scratch and irritate the skin causing secondary infections to develop. The surrounding lymph nodes may also become enlarged as the problem worsens.


Rare forms of mange in cats

3. Demodectic mange

This type of mange causes hair loss and small red, inflamed patches of skin. It may be localized, meaning it is restricted to a small area of the body, or generalized, meaning that it covers a large portion of the body. In severe cases, a bacterial skin infection may occur. This condition is rare in cats.


Demodex mite usually affect dogs


A demodectic cat (rare)


4. Cheyletiella Mange (walking dandruff)

Caused by a large red mite on the skin that produces flaking that looks like dandruff. Symptoms are usually seen on the back, neck and sides and include itching and red raised bumps. Although rare in cats, it is highly contagious for humans and other animals.


Cheyletiella mite


Cheyletiella blakei in cat (Cheyletiellosis)

Cat and dogs do not pass this type of mange to each other. Generally cats and dogs have small amounts of these mites inhabiting on their skin. This type type of mange does not often bother the cat unless it becomes inflamed. It might show up as small patches of hair loss. In more serious cases, it can cause in a bacterial infection on the skin. The skin can become inflamed, red and itchy. Demodex Mange usually starts causing problems in cats that are immuno-suppressed or that are aging. This type of mange can also adversely affect cats with poor health. Hormones and stress might also cause this type of mange to cause problems. It can be seen in pregnant and nursing cats or male cats that are not neutered.


5. Chiggers (Thrombiculid mites)

The mites look like red, orange or yellow spots on the skin. Symptoms are red sores, scabs and raw skin.


6. Sarcoptic Mange

Sarcoptic mange is another form of mange that can be contracted by felines. This variety of mange is highly contagious and very problematic to persistent. Cat that are affected by this variety of mange are extremely itchy and the scratching can cause serious inflammation and sometimes bleeding of the skin. Mites will burrow into the skin and leave the eggs. When a cat has this, the excessive scratching can also cause scabbing and infections on the skin.


Sarcoptes mite


A sarcoptes infection in cat


Cat Mange diagnosis

Skin scrapings are performed to confirm the diagnosis. There are usually a large number of mites present on the skin and the resulting skin scrapings.


A scaraping technique to diagnose mange


Treatment and prevention

  • Ivermectin (injectable or pour method)
  • Selamectin (approve use in certain countries)
  • Dipping
  • Isolation



Before treatment


After treatment



Sources: Cat Mange: the health cat guide, mange in cats; help is on the way, cat mange; cat world, Feline mange, feline scabies pet.education.com





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1 comments:

Minh Minh said...

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