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I created this blog as an instrument of what I have encountered in the world of veterinary medicine as a proud vet student. Comments and suggestions are welcome here at;


Aina Meducci 2012


The following blog posts is not genuinely from my research but through readings and citation from trusted website. I do not own any of the copyright and therefore you may use it at your own risk


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The Modified Robert Jones Bandage

In class, we were taught to demonstrate modified Robert Jones Bandage with a cat. This is just a quick revision before I started my clinical industrial training shortly.

Bandaging a cat using MRJB

The Robert Jones bandage is a common external splint applied to a limb for the temporary support of a fracture before surgical intervention can occur. It is used to treat many canine and feline limb injuries (e.g., tibial fractures, severe limb lacerations). It promotes healing by immobilizing the injured area, thereby limiting swelling and providing protection from secondary trauma. Compared with other padded bandages, the Robert-Jones bandage offers limb stability, tissue fluid absorption, and protection from trauma. Generally, most of the compression is lost after several hours to days as the cotton loosens. For definitive support of a fracture the bandage should never be on longer than a few days without reinforcement using rigid splint material.

The Modified Robert Jones bandage can be applied for the temporary compression of a limb after surgery. It functions to protect the incision site and decrease swelling to aid in healing.

Materials needed

Stirrup tape

Cotton roll (Plenty of them)

Surgical cast padding

A Vet wrap (only 1)

Let's just says a dog with fracture hindlimb underwent surgery to correct the bone. This is the steps on how the animal should be bandage to protect the bone. The 5 very simple step.

Step 1

Step 1: Using white bandage tape, place stirrups on the distal 1/3rd of the limb overlapping the toes and extending approximately an equal length from the end of the leg. Be sure to tab the ends for easy separation later on.

Step 2

Step 2: Wrap the leg lightly with cast padding starting at the toes and moving proximally. Overlap the bandage 50% as you wrap and try to get 2 layers of padding. Note - it is important not to exceed approximately two layers of cast padding. Excessive padding will cause premature loosening of the bandage as the cotton compresses overtime.

Step 3

Step 3: Wrap the leg tightly with a conforming bandage starting at the toes and moving proximally. This is the step where you create compression, however, not as much as you would with the standard Robert Jones bandage. Overlap the bandage 50% as you wrap and make sure the toes are still visible.

Step 4

Step 4: Separate the tape stirrups, rotate them proximally, and secure them to the compression bandage thus creating a barrier and preventing the bandage from slipping down. Note - you should always make sure some of the underlying cast padding is visible on the end by the toes.

Step 5

Step 5: Wrap the leg in vet wrap starting at the toes at an angle to cover the distal ends of the bandage and again moving proximally as you progress. Be sure to overlap 50% as you apply the material.

Sources: Directly taken from:

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Pyrethrins and pyrethroids toxicity

Just about going to sleep when suddenly my brother says our persian-mixed cat licking the excess chrysanthemum tea from his cup. I told him no! because I remembered what our prof told us in class regarding chrysanthemum toxicity. See, being a vet makes you know everything about do and dont's in animal!


Nice tea..but,,

What are Pyrethrins?

Extracted from dried flowers of the chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, natural pyrethrins are insect repellents. Both natural pyrethrins and synthetic ones called permethrins are used in insecticides and pet flea and tick products.

Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium

What are pyrethroids?

Pyrethroids (allethrin, alphacypermethrin, bioremethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate. permethrin, phenothrin, resmethrin, tetramethrin) are synthetic pyrethrins.

Pyrethrins and pyrethroids are used in as insecticides for the treatment of endoparasitic infestation. They are use in cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, poultry, horses, goats and humans. They are used in dogs for the control of fleas and lice. Preparations are available as dusting flowers, shampooa and sprays.

Flea spray containing pyrethrin

Shampoo containing pyrethrin

Toxic Dose

Varies depending upon type of pyrethroid, size of animal, and species.

Mechanism of toxicity

Toxicity may arise from self-grooming of treated hair. Occasionally, toxicity may arise from animals being in close association with or grooming treated animals

The toxic effects of pyrethroids and pyrethrins are due to alteration of the kinetics of voltage dependent sodium channels in nerves membrane, which causes repetitive discharge or membrane depolarisation (sodium unable to get out). Some pyrethroids may also inhibit GABA receptors causing loss inhibition. This can lead to hyperexcitability of nervous tissues and maybe the mechanism by which these compound produce convulsion.

Convulsion (seizures)

Natural pyrethrins are broken down by digestive juices, while the liver metabolizes synthetic pyrethrins before they enter an animal's GI tract. Pyrethrin toxicity in cats occurs because their livers are incapable of properly metabolizing synthetic pyrethrins.

All pyrethrins are easily hydrolyzed and degraded by stomach acids so toxicity following ingestion by pets is very low. Toxicities, although rare, do occur. A cat or dog with pyrethrin toxicosis generally will salivate, tremor, vomit, and may seizure. Generally, signs of toxicosis will be gone after 24 hours. Pyrethrins are some of the safest ingredients available, especially when one expects ingestion may occur, as is the case of cats and kittens. If lactating, breeding or pregnant animals must be treated for external parasites, pyrethrins are often recommended. Pyrethrins are generally safe for kittens as young as 4-6 weeks of age.

Clinical effect

Onset is usually 1-3 hours, sometimes up to 12 hours. Effects may have duration of 1-3 days. Simultaneous exposure to organophosphate insecticides may increase the toxicity of pyrethroids and pyrethrins. Piperonyl butoxide often added as a synergist to delay metabolism and increase toxicity in insects, produces effects similar to that of pyrethrins and pyrethroids. The clinical signs are shown below

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Ataxia
  • Tremor
  • Twitching
  • Dilated pupils
  • tachycardia
  • Pyrexia
  • Hyperexatability
  • Thirst
  • Fasciculation
  • Convulsions
  • Hyperaesthesia


If within 2 hours of ingestion, induce vomiting or perform gastric lavage and then administer adsorbents


  • Xylaxine (0.2mg/kg IV, 0.5-1 mg/kg SC or IM)
  • Apomorphine (0.005 mg/kg IV/IM, 0.1 mg/kg SC)

  • Activated charcoal (2 g/kg IM/SC)

Treatment thereafter is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Cats exposed to topical forms of synthetic pyrethrins should be thoroughly bathed with mild dish soap and lukewarm water. Overly warm water may enhance absorption of the pyrethrins, worsening the symptoms. For cats with minimal exposure this treatment may be enough.If the cat has absorbed lots of synthetic pyrethrins, she may need treatment with an anti-seizure medication like diazepam and/or the anti-tremor medication methocarbynol along with IV fluids to balance her electrolytes.

The body temperature is monitored, especially after bathing, as hypothermia increases the toxicity. Other treatments include anticonvulsants and/or muscle relaxants for controlling the seizures, and providing a safe environment to prevent injury resulting from the incoordination and disorientation. Atropine can be used to help decrease some of the signs such as the drooling. Fluids are generally administered.

Most pets recover from pyrethrin intoxication within 24-48 hours; recovery from pyrethroids may take longer. If no improvement is seen within 24 hours with treatment, the pet should be reevaluated.

" Pyrethrin is NOT the same as permethrin. Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethrin, and is less easily broken down than pyrethrin. Although its toxicity is relatively low, it is higher than that of pyrethrin. Pyrethrins can be used on cats; permethrins should NOT be used on cats. "

Sources: Handbook poisoning of dogs and cats, Blackwell science, pyrethrins and pyrethroid www.petseducation.com, The use of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in cats and dogs www.peteducation.com, Pyrethrins toxicity in cats.

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