Powered by Blogger.


I created this blog as an instrument of what I have encountered in the world of veterinary medicine as a proud vet student. Comments and suggestions are welcome here at;


Aina Meducci 2012


The following blog posts is not genuinely from my research but through readings and citation from trusted website. I do not own any of the copyright and therefore you may use it at your own risk


Happy reading!
Post Icon

Teething (Veterinary dental) Part 1

I was thrill to found out indeed there are Veterinary dental collage situated somewhere in the US. In Malaysia, veterinary field is still a small sector and so we have developed less veterinary specialties but I believe we are progressively moving towards a promising veterinary future, one day insyaAllah.

Nomenclature of specific teeth

The incisors will be referred to as: (right or left) (maxillary or mandibular) first, second, or third incisors numbered from the midline.

The central incisor is always 01 and the following incisors are 02 and 03.The canines are always 04.The premolars are 05 to 08 and the last premolar is always 08.The first molar is always 09 and the following molars are 10 and 11 (The Tridan system)

The Tridan system in cat

The existence of the conventional anatomical names of teeth as well as the various tooth numbering systems is recognized. The correct anatomical names of teeth are (right or left), (maxillary or mandibular), (first, second, third or fourth), (incisor, canine, premolar, molar), as applicable, written out in full or abbreviated.

The modified Triadan system is presently considered to be the tooth numbering system of choice in veterinary dentistry; gaps are left in the numbering sequence where there are missing teeth (for example, the first premolar encountered in the feline left maxilla is numbered 206, not 205. The two lower right premolars are 407 and 408, not 405 and 406).

Surfaces of teeth and directions of mouth

Vestibular is the correct term referring to the surface of the tooth facing the vestibule or lips; buccal and labial are acceptable alternatives.

Lingual: The surface of a mandibular or maxillary tooth facing the tongue is the lingual surface. Palatal can also be used when referring to the lingual surface of maxillary teeth.

Mesial and distal are terms applicable to tooth surfaces. The mesial surface of the first incisor is next to the median plane; on other teeth it is directed toward the first incisor. The distal surface is opposite from the mesial surface.

Rostral refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the most forward structure of the head. Caudal refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the tail.

Generations of teeth in diophyodont species

Diophyodont: A Diphyodont is an animal with two successive sets of teeth, first the "deciduous" set and later the "permanent" set. Most mammals are Diphyodonts. Diphyodonts contrast with Polyphyodonts, such as many fish, whose teeth are constantly replaced.

The deciduous dentition period (milk teeth) is that period during which only deciduous teeth are present. The mixed dentition period is that period during which both deciduous and permanent teeth are present. The permanent dentition period is that period during which only permanent teeth are present.

Deciduous teeth

Retained teeth?

The primary tooth should always be shed as the permanent tooth cuts through the gum. But sometimes the root of the primary tooth does not dissolve and the tooth remains firmly held in the jaw. The permanent tooth then “glances off” the retained primary tooth and erupts through the gum at an improper angle.

All retained teeth should be extracted as soon as the condition is recognized. If the extractions are performed early, the abnormally positioned adult tooth usually moves over to fill the void and assumes a more correct position. The removal of retained deciduous teeth is an inexpensive, simple way to prevent major problems from developing in the adult dentition.

If retained primary teeth are allowed to remain in the mouth, the teeth become crowded, rotated, or tilted at abnormal angles.

This will result in;
  • early onset and increased severity of gum disease
  • damage to the soft tissues of the mouth, due to sharp teeth penetrating unprotected gum and mouth tissues
  • pain, in the joints of the jaw as well as in the gums, lips, and teeth
  • excessive wear, when abnormally aligned teeth grind against other teeth and weaken them

Jaws, salivary glands and lymph nodes

All mammals have two maxillas (or maxillae) and two mandibles.


All animals have two mandibles, not one -- removing one entire mandible therefore is a mandibulectomy not a hemimandibulectomy

Corpus mandibulae (body of mandible)

The part that carries the teeth - often incorrectly referred to as horizontal ramus

Pars incisive (incision part)

The part that carries the incisors

Pars molaris (Molar part)

The part that carries the premolars and molars premolar-molar part would probably have been more accurate

Margo alveolaris (margin of alveolar)

Alveolar crest

Margo ventralis

Ventral margin

Canalis Mandibulae (canal of mandibulae)

Contains only the neurovascular bundle often incorrectly referred to as the medullary cavity of the mandible

Foramina mentalia (mental foramen)

Rostral, middle or caudal mental foramina in the dog and cat

Ramus mandibulae (Ramus of mandible)

The part that carries the 3 processes often incorrectly referred to as the vertical ramus

Synchondrosis intermandibularis (mandibular symphysis)

Collum mandibulae (Neck of mandible)

Incisive bones

In domestic animals, the correct name for the paired bones that carry the maxillary incisors, located rostral to the maxillary bones, is the incisive bones, not the premaxilla.

Mandibular salivary glands and nodes

Domestic animals have a mandibular gland (or mandibular salivary gland) and a mandibular lymph node. The term "submandibular," as used in humans, is incorrect due the difference in topography of these structures.


The fauces are defined as the lateral walls of the oropharynx that are located medial to the palatoglossal folds. The areas lateral to the palatoglossal fold, commonly involved in feline stomatitis, are not the fauces.

Hard palate

The midline of the hard palate is not a symphysis but is formed by the interincisive suture, the median palatine suture of the palatine processes of the maxillary bones, and the median suture of the palatine bones.

Dental fracture classification

To be continue..

Sources: AVDC nomenclature & Virginia Veterinary Dentistry

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS


Post a Comment